There are two factors at work here.
The column menu's round operation changes the column's display, while not modifying the column's contents. That is why those rounded numbers were not retained after your filter. Before the rounding, those numbers would not have been retained.
Since you are using a float, best practice is not to use the standard conditional operators gt, ge, lt, le, or eq.
You have two options:
The map operation has a round function you can use to round a column to the nearest integer. You can multiply your number by some multiple of 10 to get the right significance level.
You can use the map operation's arithmetic floatCompare function to compare the column against the value to a specified precision level. floatCompare takes three float parameters, two numbers, and the precision margin, and returns:
0 if the first parameter is within the third parameter of the second parameter.
-1 if the first param is less than the second parameter (by the third parameter or more).
1 if the first param is greater than the second parameter (by the third parameter or more).
Using one of these options, you can filter your data, as needed. Let me know if you have any additional questions about this.